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Compensation of Navajo Uranium Miners

(last updated 23 Apr 2013)

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Current Issues

Bill introduced in U.S. Congress to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

U.S. Senator Tom Udall external link (D-N.M.) on Friday, April 19, led a bipartisan group of senators in renewing their efforts to expand restitution for Americans sickened from working in uranium mines or living downwind of atomic weapons tests. Rep. Ben Ray Luján external link (D-NM-3) concurrently introduced companion legislation in the House.
Among other things, the RECA Amendments of 2013 would build upon previous RECA legislation by qualifying post-1971 uranium workers for compensation; equalizing compensation for all claimants to $150,000; expanding the downwind exposure area to include seven states downwind of the Nevada and Trinity Test Sites; and funding an epidemiological study of the health effects on families of uranium workers and residents of uranium development communities. (Cibola Beacon Apr. 23, 2013)
> View: S.773 external link · H.R. 1645 external link

Bill introduced in U.S. Congress to expand coverage by Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On April 12, 2011, U.S. Senator Tom Udall external link led a bipartisan group of senators in introducing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) Amendments of 2011 (S. 791 external link), which would provide expanded restitution for Americans sickened from working in uranium mines or living downwind of atomic weapons tests. Companion legislation was concurrently introduced in the House (H.R. 1490 external link) by Rep. Ben Ray Luján external link (D-NM-3).
Specifically, the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2011 would:

 

Bill introduced in U.S. Senate to expand coverage by Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

A bipartisan group of U.S. senators from western states wants to expand federal compensation for people who became ill from working in uranium mines, living near debris left from mining or living near atomic tests from the 1940s to the 1960s. The measure, introduced Monday (April 19), would broaden who's eligible for compensation, expand the downwind exposure area to include seven states and fund a study of health impacts on families of uranium workers and people living near uranium development. Senate staffers could not say how many people might potentially be covered by the proposed amendments to the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, RECA. The bill also would add all of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah in areas defined as downwind from atomic tests. (AP Apr. 20, 2010)

Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2010: S.3224 external link · H.R.5119 external link

 

Navajo Committee seeks amendment to Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

A grassroots effort to help uranium mine workers' children affected by diseases and birth defects is picking up steam on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Nation Dependents of Uranium Workers Committee will meet for the second time in a month to update community members and hear feedback from residents who suffer from cancer, kidney disease, birth defects and other illnesses resulting from prolonged radon exposure from uranium mines.
The health problems date back to work in the 1950s and '60s, said Phil Harrison, Council Delegate for Red Valley/Cove Chapter of the Navajo Nation. During that time, uranium mine workers were exposed to high levels of radon, which has caused inter-generational bouts of illnesses in communities across the Navajo Nation. "A lot of people don't want to talk about this in the public," Harrison said.
By holding public meetings, organizers hope to garner enough support to lobby government officials in Washington, D.C., to amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. RECA, which was passed by Congress in 1990, authorized funding for people who contracted cancer or other specific diseases from radon exposure from working in the region's uranium mines. It was amended in 2000, and some would like to see it amended further. With virtually no records from 50 to 60 years ago, many people are not able to receive worker's compensation, medical care or compensation for deaths, illnesses or the on-going birth defects, Harrison said. (Farmington Daily Times April 22, 2009)

 

HRSA outreach seeks to raise cancer awareness among people who lived near nuclear sites or mined uranium

On May 8, 2008, Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program (RESEP) launched a nationwide outreach effort to raise awareness about the need for cancer screening among people who lived near nuclear weapons testing facilities in the mid-20th century. The effort also targets former test site employees and workers in the uranium mining industry.

> Radiation Exposure Education & Screening Program (RESEP) external link

 

GAO gives update on Radiation Exposure Compensation program status

Uranium worker data from April 1992 through June 30, 2007:
CategoryClaims approvedClaims deniedClaims pendingTotal payments
Uranium Miner4,5602,661208$455 million
Uranium Miller1,00023933$100 million
Uranium Ore Transporter217707$22 million
TOTAL5,7772,970248$577 million

> Download GAO Report Radiation Exposure Compensation Act: Program Status, September 7, 2007 external link (PDF)

 

"Post-71" uranium miners accuse federal government of withholding study recommending compensation

On Oct. 26, 2005, "Post-71" uranium miners charged that the federal government and the former Atomic Energy Commission withheld a study which recommended they be compensated under the federal Radiation Exposure Compensation Act based on supporting health studies and exposure data.
Antonio Sena and Margarito Martinez, former Kerr-McGee mine workers who for years have been advocating on behalf of uranium miners who worked after 1971, referred to as Post-71 miners, appeared to catch representatives from the U.S. Department of Labor and Department of Justice off guard as they presented an update on the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act to a packed house at Best Western in Grants.
Sena and Martinez gave program facilitators a copy of the "Journal of Health & Social Policy" report (Vol. 19, 2004, No. 4, p. 45-59) by two Utah State University professors and a message to take back to Washington, D.C. In the article entitled, "Unfinished Business: Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) for Post-1971 U.S. Uranium Underground Miners," professors Gary E. Madsen, Ph.D, and Susan E. Dawson, Ph.D, examined the regulatory history and scientific evidence used for passage of RECA for miners prior to 1972. Also included was evidence they said supported inclusion of Post-71 workers under the federal RECA compensation program.
Study findings
According to the "Unfinished Business" report, the 1990 RECA legislation established a cutoff of 1971 based on government liability related to the uranium procurement program. The report's authors said there was a perception among many in government and the uranium industry that the 4 Working Level Months standard passed in 1971 would provide adequate protection for miners; however, they said, this was not supported by the scientific community. They also issued a word of caution in interpreting working level findings "because of validity and reliability issues."
Findings in a 1980 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) report, based on scientific study, showed that the Mine Safety Health Administration standard of 4 WLM "does not provide an adequate degree of protection for underground miners exposed to radiation when it is evaluated over their exposure lifetime."
The authors said reliability issues also were clearly established in the NIOSH report. Based on the Mine Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) 1977 Annual Report to Congress, "there continued to be an apparent discrepancy between federal inspection results and company records." "When federal samples taken from routine inspections were compared with company records, the following yearly exposures were found," they said. Company records indicated average exposure-WLM in 1975 was 1.07. MESA sampling results showed the average was 5.68. In 1976, company records indicated 0.99 average exposure; MESA showed 4.64. In 1977, the company average was 0.91 as compared to MESA's 4.08.
(Gallup Independent Oct. 27, 2005)

 

GAO: Radiation Exposure Compensation payments improving

An investigation by the General Accounting Office into the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act - the program to compensate downwinders and uranium workers sickened by above-ground nuclear testing - found that the Department of Justice is doing a much better job administering the program than it was when a similar study was done in 2003.
According to the report, not only is the program now funded "for life," only 8 percent of 22,206 claims filed since 1992 remain unresolved - compared to 18 percent of the 14,987 claims that had been filed as of the 2003 report. The Department of Justice also is processing the claims faster.
The GAO found that improvements could be attributed to changes in the law that improved efficiencies and greater financial stability for the program. (Deseret News Oct. 2, 2005)

> Download GAO report: Radiation Exposure Compensation Act: Program Status GAO-05-1002R, September 28, 2005 external link (PDF)

 

NAS recommends to examine whether Cold War era residents of uranium mills should become eligible for radiation exposure compensation

A National Academy of Science Committee has published a study investigating the scientific background for the criteria to be used to determine eligibility of persons who contracted cancer for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA). So far, the program had been applicable to uranium workers and downwinders of nuclear weapon tests only.
In the study, the committee recommends among others, that "the appropriate agency" should review whether residents who lived in dwellings constructed from mill and mine tailings and/or lived near uranium mill tailings piles and uranium mills used to produce uranium for the US nuclear weapons program may have received radiation doses that meet or exceed the RECA compensation criteria. "If so, the agency should take the necessary steps to have these populations included in RECA."

Assessment of the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program, Committee to Assess the Scientific Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program, National Research Council, ISBN: 0-309-09610-3, 500 pages, 2005
> View NAS study online external link
> Download NAS study summary external link (505k PDF)
> Download NAS Report Brief external link (300k PDF)

 

DOJ issues final rule implementing Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments

The Department of Justice revises its existing regulations (28 CFR Part 79) implementing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, to reflect changes to RECA contained in two legislative enactments: the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000, enacted on July 10, 2000; and the 21st Century Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, enacted on November 2, 2002.

Federal Register: March 23, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 56) p. 13627-13676 (download full text external link)

 

GAO: funding once more may be inadequate for radiation exposure compensation program

A report released by the General Accounting Office on April 15, 2003, finds that the RECA program may run short of funding during the years 2003 through 2007, due in part to the amendments made to the act in 2000.

Radiation Exposure Compensation: Funding to Pay Claims May Be Inadequate to Meet Projected Needs. U.S. General Accounting Office, GAO-03-481, April 14, 2003.
> Download: Full text (485k PDF) external link · Highlights (81k PDF) external link

 

Radiation exposure compensation program amended

On November 2, 2002, President Bush signed the Justice Department's FY2002 Authorization bill, which contains several provisions amending the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA). The changes include revisions to the downwinder and onsite participant categories, as well as uranium workers.

> View DOJ release Nov. 5, 2002 external link

Bill H.R. 2215 external link became Public Law 107-273 external link (PDF - coming soon)

 

DOJ releases rules implementing RECA act amendments

The Department of Justice revises its existing regulations to implement the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), to reflect amendments to the Act made in the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000, enacted on July 10, 2000.

Department of Justice, 28 CFR Part 79, Claims Under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000; Final Rule and Proposed Rule
Federal Register (Vol. 67, No. 67) Aug. 7, 2002, p. 51421-51439: GPO text external link

""SUMMARY: [...] The final regulations: expand the list of radiogenic and chronic diseases that are compensable for ``downwinder'' and ``onsite participant'' claimants; eliminate smoking distinctions for all claimants; amend the list of geographical areas to provide additional radiation-affected areas for ``downwinder'' claimants; modify the burden of proof for purposes of claims processing; allow claimants who have previously been denied compensation to file up to three times; and make other technical revisions consistent with the amended Act. "

Department of Justice, 28 CFR Part 79, Claims Under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2000; Expansion of Coverage to Uranium Millers and Ore Transporters; Expansion of Coverage for Uranium Miners; Representation and Fees (Proposed rule).
Federal Register (Vol. 67, No. 67) Aug. 7, 2002, p. 51440-51457: GPO text external link

"SUMMARY: [...] This proposed rule describes the expanded population of eligible uranium mine workers created by lowering the radiation exposure threshold for miners; identifies the new uranium mining states with respect to which miners may be eligible for compensation; includes provision for compensation to ``aboveground'' miners; sets forth employment eligibility criteria for the new claimant categories; describes the documentation that would be required to establish proof of employment in a uranium mine or mill or as an ore transporter; describes the medical documentation necessary to establish the existence of renal cancer and chronic renal disease; and revises the provision concerning representation of claimants before the Department of Justice with respect to claims brought under the Act."
The comment period on the proposed rule was reopened (See Federal Register (Vol. 67, No. 229) Nov. 27, 2002, p. 70892: download full text external link):
Comments must be received on or before January 27, 2003.

 

Availability of funds for RECA education programs

Federal Register: April 30, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 83), Page 21256-21258 (download full notice external link):
"Fiscal Year 2002 Competitive Application Cycle for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program 93.257

AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS.

ACTION: Notice of availability of funds.

SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces the availability of approximately $3.0 million to eligible entities for the purpose of carrying out programs to develop education programs and disseminate information on radiogenic diseases and the importance of early detection; screen eligible individuals for cancer and other radiogenic diseases; provide appropriate referrals for medical treatment; and facilitate documentation of Radiation Exposure Compensation Program claims."
[...]

Eligible applicants include nonprofit organizations.
 

President signs bill to ensure compensation payments for 10 years

On December 13, 2001, Congress enacted legislation that would ensure compensation payments under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act for the next 10 years. The bill was signed by the President on December 28, 2001. Previous legislation was depending on the necessary appropriations being provided every year.
> View S.1438: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 external link
SEC. 1066. RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT MANDATORY APPROPRIATIONS.

Section 3(e) of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (42 U.S.C. 2210 note) is amended to read as follows:
(e) APPROPRIATION-
(1) IN GENERAL- Subject to the limits in paragraph (2), there are appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the fiscal year 2002, and each fiscal year thereafter through 2011, such sums as may be necessary to the Fund for the purpose of making payments to eligible beneficiaries under this Act.
(2) LIMITATION- Amounts appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1) may not exceed--
(A) in fiscal year 2002, $172,000,000;
(B) in fiscal year 2003, $143,000,000;
(C) in fiscal year 2004, $107,000,000;
(D) in fiscal year 2005, $65,000,000;
(E) in fiscal year 2006, $47,000,000;
(F) in fiscal year 2007, $29,000,000;
(G) in fiscal year 2008, $29,000,000;
(H) in fiscal year 2009, $23,000,000;
(I) in fiscal year 2010, $23,000,000; and
(J) in fiscal year 2011, $17,000,000.'.


 

GAO Review of Radiation Exposure Compensation Program

A review by the U.S. General Accounting Office, a research arm of Congress, says that the Justice Department is administering the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program (RECP) within the law and limits imposed by Congress. However, it does say Justice could do a better job in reaching out to likely victims to let them know they may qualify for compensation. (Deseret News Sep 25, 2001)

United States General Accounting Office: Report to Congressional Committees, RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION - Analysis of Justice's Program Administration, GAO-01-1043, September 17, 2001
> Download external link (200k PDF)
 

Bush administration seeks to delay miner compensation

The Bush administration wants to remove some aboveground mine workers from the RECA compensation program for workers who contracted illnesses after working in Cold War-era nuclear weapons programs. The administration wants to delay the payments until the completion of three ongoing studies.
Aboveground uranium miners, ore-haulers and millers were added to the program last year and could begin applying for $100,000 payments in January 2001. At least 141 ore-haulers and millers applied for compensation, but none have been paid. (Washington Post Aug. 28, 2001)
 

President signs bill to ensure compensation payments

On July 24,2001, President Bush signed H.R.2216 external link (Making supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2001, and for other purposes) which became Public Law No: 107-20.
Excerpt:
"PAYMENT TO RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION TRUST FUND
For an additional amount for 'Payment to Radiation Exposure Compensation Trust Fund' for claims covered by the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, $84,000,000, to remain available until expended."

 

New bill introduced to ensure compensation payments

The bill would increase benefits for victims from nuclear weapons' tests fallout to $100,000.
The bill also would protect the compensation from Congress' annual budget battles by declaring it an entitlement.
 

Radiation victims dying with IOUs in hand
New bills introduced to ensure payments

The program, which awards $150,000 compassionate payments to miners suffering from radiation-related diseases, ran out of money in May 2000. The U.S. Department of Justice began sending out IOUs to successful claimants, 275 IOUs so far.
Two bills were introduced in Congress that would help uranium miners and workers receive their compensation. The first bill would allocate $84 million in emergency supplemental appropriations to pay off the IOUs. The second bill would exempt the radiation exposure funding from the annual budget and appropriations process so that future payments would be automatic. The bills were introduced in the Senate on March 1, 2001 and in the House on March 13, 2001.
 

Compensation for uranium miners raised to $150,000

On October 30, 2000, President Clinton signed a bill raising the compensation for uranium miners from $100,000 to $150,000.
> The legislation is part of the defense authorization bill H.R. 4205 external link and became Public Law No: 106-398

> See also: DOE workers' compensation
 

President signs Bill to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On August 5, 1999, Mr. Hatch introduced the bill S.1515 external link in the U.S. Senate: "To amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, and for other purposes."
> See also Salt Lake Tribune, August 7, 1999 external link
On November 2, 1999, the bill was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee and sent to the full Senate for consideration. (Salt Lake Tribune Nov. 3, 1999 external link)
On November 19, 1999, the bill passed Senate with an amendment by Unanimous Consent, and it was sent to the House of Representatives for consideration. (Orrin Hatch press release Nov. 19, 1999 external link)
On June 27, 2000, the bill passed the House.
On July 10, 2000, the bill was signed by the President and became Public Law No: 106-245.
Major provisions of the bill include:

Instead Of $100,000, Radiation Victims Get IOUs

Former uranium miners who qualify for federal payments to compensate for radiation-related illnesses instead are getting IOUs (= I owe you) from the government. Several former miners recently received letters saying they qualified for $100,000 payments each, but the money is not available now. (Albuquerque Journal, Aug. 15, 2000)
The Justice Department has 242 approved but unfunded claims from former miners or their families. They have waited for months, some since May, for the government to fulfill promised, compassionate $100,000 payments - payments that Congress has since boosted to $150,000. (The Daily Sentinel, December 10, 2000)
 

Colorado Plateau uranium mill workers' study

"Men who worked decades ago crushing and processing uranium ore in the mills that dotted the Colorado Plateau finally are being tested to determine if they suffer the same job-related health effects as uranium miners.
The former uranium mill workers are submitting to detailed interviews and medical tests as part of the first-ever study of a large number of mill workers to see if their health was damaged by their above-ground handling of uranium ore.
The study being done by researchers from the University of New Mexico at Albuquerque with congressional funding is expected to yield results that could affect a newly introduced bill that would expand federal compensation to uranium millers and transporters with radiation-related diseases. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act currently covers only uranium miners and those exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear tests." (Denver Post, Aug. 31, 1999)
 

Bill introduced in House to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On April 21, 1999, Mr Skeen introduced the bill H.R.1516 external link in the U.S. House of Representatives: "Radiation Workers Justice Act of 1999 - A bill to amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to provide for payment of compensation to individuals exposed to radiation as the result of working in uranium mines and mills which provided uranium for the use and benefit of the United States Government, and for other purposes."
 

Amendment of regulations implementing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) - U.S. DOJ Final Rule

U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Divison: 28 CFR Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act: Evidentiary Requirements; Definitions; and Number of Times Claims May Be Filed - Final rule. In: Federal Register, March 22, 1999 (Vol. 64, No. 54), p. 13686-13700 (download full text external link):
"SUMMARY: The Department of Justice (``the Department'') amends its existing regulations implementing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to: allow claimants to submit affidavits or declarations in support of a claim to establish smoking and alcohol consumption histories where no other records exist; allow the use of pathology reports of tissue biopsies as additional means by which claimants can present evidence of a compensable non-malignant respiratory disease; amend the definitions of ``smoker'' and ``non-smoker''; include in situ lung cancers under the definition of primary cancers of the lung; and allow claimants who have filed claims prior to the implementation of these regulations and have been denied compensation to file another three times.

DATES: Effective date: April 21, 1999. [...]"


Bill introduced in House to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On March 9, 1999, Mr Udall introduced the bill H.R.1045 external link in the U.S. House of Representatives: "Radiation Exposure Compensation Improvement Act of 1999 - A bill to amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to provide for partial restitution to individuals who worked in uranium mines, mills, or transport which provided uranium for the use and benefit of the United States Government, and for other purposes."
 

Bill introduced in House to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On March 2, 1999, Mrs. Mink introduced the bill H.R.930 external link in the U.S. House of Representatives: "To amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to remove the requirement that exposure resulting in stomach cancer occur before age 30, and for other purposes".
 

Bill introduced in Senate to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On February 4, 1999, Mr. Bingaman introduced the bill S.367 external link in the U.S. Senate: "To amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to provide for partial restitution to individuals who worked in uranium mines, mills, or transport which provided uranium for the use and benefit of the United States Government, and for other purposes."
 

Bill introduced in House to amend Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

On March 24, 1998, Mr. Redmond introduced the bill H.R.3539 external link in the U.S. House of Representatives: "To amend the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act to provide for payment of compensation to individuals exposed to radiation as the result of working in uranium mines and mills which provided uranium for the use and benefit of the United States Government, and for other purposes."
> View related Grand Junction Daily Sentinel article (July 12, 1998) external link
 

Amendment of regulations implementing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) - U.S. DOJ Proposed Rule

U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Divison: 28 CFR Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act: Evidentiary Requirements; Definitions and Number of Claims Filed - Proposed Rule. In: Federal Register, May 23, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 100) p. 28393- 28396, (download full text external link)

SUMMARY: The Department of Justice (``the Department'') proposes to amend its existing regulations implementing the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (``RECA'' or ``Act''). The proposed rule would: Allow claimants to submit affidavits or declarations in support of a claim under certain circumstances; allow the use of high resolution computed tomography reports and pathology reports of tissue biopsies as additional means by which claimants can present evidence of a compensable non-malignant respiratory disease; amend the definitions of ``smoker'' and ``non-smoker;'' include in situ lung cancers under the definition of primary cancers of the lung; and allow claimants who have filed claims prior to the implementation of these proposed regulations and have been denied compensation to file another three times.
[...]


Legislation

  • U.S. Congress: Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Public Law 101-426-Oct.15, 1990 (search for "EXPOSURE" within the file):
    external link

  • U.S. DOJ: 28 CFR Part 79 - Claims under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act
    Available for download via GPO Access external link or Cornell Law School external link


    Papers and Presentations

    What is the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act? external link (Dawes and Harriss, P.C.)

    Final Report of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Committee external link, July 1996

    Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments:

    Testimonies before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims external link, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing on H.R. 3539 external link, the "Radiation Workers Justice Act of 1998" -- June 25, 1998:

    Study Alternatives For Evaluating Health Effects Of Uranium Milling external link, by Lynne E. Pinkerton and Thomas F. Bloom, National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH), January 17, 1997

    Navajo Uranium Radiation Victims external link (Kerry Richardson)

    Report on the 4th Indigenous Uranium Forum external link (Kerry Richardson)

    Navajo Uranium Miners fight for Compensation external link (Timothy Benally)

    Testimony by Philipp Harrison at the 1992 World Uranium Hearing external link

    Uranium Radiation in the Diné Bikeyah (Diné CARE - Citizens Against Ruining our Environment):


    Books

    Cancer Factories - America's Tragic Quest for Uranium Self-Sufficiency external link, by Howard Ball, Contributions in Medical Studies No.37, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1993, 189 p., ISBN 0-313-27566-1

    If you poison us : uranium and Native Americans external link, by Peter H. Eichstaedt, Red Crane Books, Santa Fe, NM 1994, 263 p., ISBN 0-878610-40-6

    "Memories Come to Us in the Rain and the Wind": Oral Histories and Photographs of Navajo Uranium Miners and Their Families. external link The Navajo Uranium Miner Oral History and Photography Project (Ed.); Boston 1997, 62 p.
    To purchase the book and/or for more information contact Doug Brugge at dbrugge@aol.com


    Links

    U.S. Dept. of Justice RECA page external link

    Photos of Navajo uranium miners by Sean Cayton "Behind the lines" external link

    Diné CARE external link (Citizens Against Ruining our Environment)

    See also:

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