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Uranium in Soil and Building Material Individual Dose Calculator - HELP

(last updated 15 Oct 2012)

Contents:


Introduction

This calculator gives rough estimates of the radiation risk for an individual living on soil contaminated from uranium and its decay products and/or living in a home built from contaminated material. It is based on a residential exposure scenario (view schematic ) considering the following pathways: ingestion of soil, inhalation of fugitive dusts, external exposure, ingestion of produce grown in the soil, ingestion of contaminated groundwater, and inhalation of radon.
The calculator mainly uses the models and default parameters presented in U.S. EPA's Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides (SSGR).
Differences of the approach used in this calculator, compared to the SSGR:

The kind and degree of contamination of the soil and/or the building material is defined in the Input Data table.

The parameters used for the calculation can be set in the Exposure Parameters and Site Parameters tables. These parameters show reasonable initial values which can be modified as needed. Any assumptions made for the calculations are described on this page.
Since the EPA's Soil Screening Guidance is intended to identify areas that can be excluded from further study, most parameter values selected are conservative. The risk calculated using these parameters therefore may overestimate the risk at many real sites.
Since the Soil Screening Guidance is intended for use at an early stage of site assessment, EPA used only simple models that are based on easily obtainable parameters. This is the reason why these models were selected for this calculator. If, however, more site specific data is available, the use of a more sophisticated modeling software such as DOE's RESRAD, NRC's DandD, or EPA's PRESTO (see Dose calculation software) is recommended.

The Result field lists the excess lifetime cancer morbidity risk (in percent) for each exposure pathway. Moreover, annual dose rates are presented for each pathway, to facilitate comparison; these are obtained by applying ICRP's radiation risk coefficient to the risk figures. However, the dose rates obtained this way may differ considerably from dose rates calculated directly using ICRP's models and dose coefficients.
The calculated uranium concentration in drinking water is shown, to allow for an assessment of the chemical hazard of uranium, which is not covered by the risk calculation. This value can be compared to standards such as WHO's provisional guideline of 15 g/L, or EPA's drinking water standard of 30 g/L, for example: both of them are based on the chemical toxicity of uranium (see current standards).
For the ingestion pathways, the daily uranium ingestion rate is shown, to allow for an assessment of the chemical hazard via comparison to standards, such as WHO's tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.6 g per kg body weight (i.e. 36 g/d for 60-kg-adult).
Also, the radon concentrations in indoor and outdoor air are shown. These reflect the contribution from radon exhalation from soil, and, for indoors, also from radon exhalation from the building materials.
The contents of the Result field can be highlighted and copied for further use.

This calculator is suitable for offline use.

Cautionary Notice

Some of the parameters used for the calculations vary over several orders of magnitude, in particular those covering soil properties and groundwater migration. Meaningful results for the pathways of radon inhalation and groundwater ingestion at real sites can therefore only be obtained, if site specific values are entered for these parameters.

 


Input Data

Contaminant concentration in soil
Enter number, select unit and type
If no concentration is known or if the types from the pick list are not applicable, leave this field empty and enter the activity concentrations directly.
Average concentrations of natural uranium in soil are 3 mg/kg, with decay products in equilibrium.

Activity concentrations in soil
activity concentrations for the radionuclides in soil, in Bq/g or pCi/g, as selected.
The suffix +D for a radionuclide means that its short-lived decay products are assumed to be present in secular equilibrium
NuclideShort lived decay products
U-238 +DTh-234, [Pa-234m, Pa-234]
Ra-226 +DRn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214
Pb-210 +DBi-210, Po-210
U-235 +DTh-231
Ac-227 +D[Th-227, Fr-223], Ra-223, Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, [Tl-207, Po-211]
Note: [ ] indicates branching

In case a soil contaminant concentration is entered, the corresponding activity concentrations are determined automatically. But, activities can also be entered or modified independently.

Activity concentration in building material
activity concentrations for the radionuclides in building material, in Bq/g or pCi/g, as selected.
Leave this field empty, if the contribution from the building material is not of interest. The suffix +D for a radionuclide means that its short-lived decay products are assumed to be present in secular equilibrium
Typical values: [UNSCEAR 1993]
MaterialRa-226 [Bq/g]
Typical masonry0.05
Granite blocks0.09
Coal ash aggregate0.15
Alum shale concrete1.3
Phosphogypsum0.6
Natural gypsum0.02

 


Exposure Parameters

These parameters are depending on the behaviour of the residents living on the site.

General

This section includes parameters which are used for more than one exposure pathway.
ED (exposure duration) yr
number of years residing on the contaminated site
The SSGR uses a figure of 30 years, since this is a high estimate for the time spent on one site in the U.S. A more conservative approach would assume lifetime here, or 70 years, for example.

EF (exposure frequency) d/yr
number of days spent on-site per year
These are the days the person spends not completely off-site.

ETo (outdoor exposure time fraction) unitless
fraction of time spent outdoors on-site on on-site-days

ETi (indoor exposure time fraction) unitless
fraction of time spent indoors on-site on on-site-days
The value of 0.683 (that is 68.3%) used in SSGR is in no way conservative. UNSCEAR uses 0.8, and for persons without outside employment, the fraction may even reach 0.9.

 

Ingestion of Soil

Age Adjusted
IRa (adult soil ingestion rate) mg/d

IRc (child soil ingestion rate) mg/d

EDc (child exposure duration) yr
(the remainder, that is ED - EDc, is used as adult exposure duration)

IRs (soil ingestion rate) mg/d
time-weighted average soil ingestion rate for children and adults; calculated from IRa, IRc, EDc, and ED (shown for display only)

Adult Only
IR s (soil ingestion rate) mg/d

 

Inhalation of Fugitive Dusts

IRi (air inhalation rate) m3/d
The inhalation rate varies with activity level, age, weight, sex, and general physical condition. Typical values are: (note that the table values are per hour!)
Inhalation Rates (m3/h)
 Activity Level
RestingLightModerateHeavy
Adult male0.70.82.54.8
Adult female0.30.51.62.9
Average adult0.50.62.13.9
Child, age 60.40.82.02.4
Child, age 100.41.03.24.2
From these hourly rates, a mix can be compiled to obtain the daily inhalation rate.

 

Ingestion of Produce

IRvf (vegetable and fruit ingestion rate) kg/year
total annual consumption of vegetable and fruit

IRlv (leafy vegetables ingestion rate) kg/year
total annual consumption of leafy vegetables
It includes consumption of vegetables such as spinach and lettuce.

CPF (contaminated plant fraction from the site) unitless
fraction of total vegetable/fruit consumption that is homegrown on the contaminated site

 

Ingestion of Groundwater

This pathway addresses ingestion of ground water contaminated by the migration of contaminants through soil to an underlying potable aquifer. Because the equations developed for this pathway assume an infinite source, they can violate mass-balance considerations, especially for small sources (Method 1).
To address this concern, mass-limit-based equations have been included for this pathway when the size (i.e., area and depth) of the contaminated soil source is known or can be estimated with confidence (Method 2).
IRw (drinking water intake rate) L/d

 


Site Parameters

These parameters describe properties of the site. They are mostly independent of the behaviour of the residents (with the exception of those building parameters depending on the ventilation behaviour).
Note: Many of the following descriptions are heavily relying on [Yu 1993].

General

Surface area
Surface area of contaminated soil.
Pick nearest value.

ACF (area correction factor for gamma radiation) unitless
correcting factor for gamma radiation exposure from small source areas - looked up from Surface Area

V (fraction of vegetative cover) unitless
fraction of the contaminated site that is covered by vegetation
It is assumed that no soil particles are resuspended into air from the vegetated areas.

ds (average source depth) m
thickness of the contaminated soil layer.
This parameter is only required, if the Migration to Groundwater is to be determined with Method 2 (see below), or if, for the calculation of the radon release, the default assumption of an infinite source depth is inadequate, in particular for thin layers (< 4 m) of contaminated soil and/or high diffusion coefficients.
Where the actual average depth of contamination is uncertain, a conservative estimate should be used (e.g., the maximum possible depth in the unsaturated zone). At many sites, the average water table depth may be used unless there is reason to believe that contamination extends below the water table. In the latter case the calculator cannot be applied.

Soil

The soil type can be initialized to representative values for Sand, Silt (Default), and Clay. Note that for each of these types the parameters may vary over wide ranges.
The initialization affects the parameters in the soil section, plus parameter FAF (Building section). Other parameters are not affected by this initialization, while, in reality, more parameters are depending on the soil type.
rhob (dry soil bulk density) kg/L

epsilon (total soil porosity) Lpore/Lsoil
ratio of the pore volume (air- and water-filled) to the total volume of the soil
Note: any entry for this value modifies the value computed for De (see below).
Sand0.25 - 0.50
Silt0.35 - 0.50
Clay0.40 - 0.70

thetaw (water-filled soil porosity) Lwater/Lsoil
ratio of the water-filled pore volume to the total volume of the soil.
The possible values range from near zero for dry soils approaching zero saturation, up to the value of the total porosity for fully saturated soils. Because clayey soils swell upon wetting, the values for these soils can exceed their total porosity.
Note: any entry for this value modifies the value computed for De (see below).

f (radon emanation fraction from soil) unitless
fraction of the total amount of radon produced by radium decay that escapes from the soil particles and gets into the pores of the soil.
It depends on the soil material and the moisture content. It varies over a range of 0.1 - 0.4 or more; typical values are in the range of 0.2 - 0.3.

De (soil effective radon diffusion coeff.) m2/s
defined from Fick's equation as the ratio of the diffusive flux density of radon activity across the pore area to the gradient of the radon activity concentration in the pore or interstitial space.
This value is calculated from epsilon and thetaw according to [Rogers 1991], but can be modified as needed.
Note: any entry for epsilon and thetaw (see above) modifies the value computed for De.
Caution: The effective (or interstitial) diffusion coefficient De is not to be confused with the bulk radon diffusion coefficient D. D is obtained by multiplying De by the total soil porosity (epsilon). The use of the terminology for the diffusion coefficients in literature is highly inconsistent - in some cases, the symbols of D and De are used reversely!
The diffusion coefficient in porous media is a property of the diffusing species, the pore structure, the type of fluids present in the pores, the adsorption properties of the solid matrix, the fluid saturations, and temperature.
The effective radon diffusivity values in porous media (soils and concrete included) vary over a wide range of several orders of magnitude depending on the porous material and particularly on its degree of water saturation. Typically, the effective diffusion coefficient of radon in unconsolidated soil material with a low moisture content is about 10-6 m2/s. The upper limit is represented by the radon diffusion coefficient in open air, Do, which is about 1.1 x 10-5 m2/s. At the lower extreme, in a fully saturated soil material the radon diffusion coefficient may be as low as 10-10 m2/s.

 

Building Material

The building material can be initialized to representative values for ordinary concrete (default), natural gypsum, and clay bricks.
rhom (material density) kg/L

epsilonm (total material porosity) Lpore/Lmatl
ratio of the pore volume to the total volume
The porosity of building materials varies over a range of 0.01 - 0.7.

fm (radon emanation fraction from material) unitless
fraction of the total amount of radon produced by radium decay that escapes from the material particles and gets into the pores of the material.
Materialtypicalrange
Brick (clay)0.040.02 - 0.1
Concrete (ordinary)0.150.1 - 0.4
Gypsum (natural)0.080.03 - 0.2

De_m (material effective radon diffusion coeff.) m2/s
defined from Fick's equation as the ratio of the diffusive flux density of radon activity across the pore area to the gradient of the radon activity concentration in the pore or interstitial space.
Caution: The effective (or interstitial) diffusion coefficient De is not to be confused with the bulk radon diffusion coefficient D. D is obtained by multiplying De by the total porosity (epsilon). The use of the terminology for the diffusion coefficients in literature is highly inconsistent - in some cases, the symbols of D and De are used reversely!
The diffusion coefficient in porous media is a property of the diffusing species, the pore structure, the type of fluids present in the pores, the adsorption properties of the solid matrix, the fluid saturations, and temperature.
The effective radon diffusivity values in building materials vary over a wide range of several orders of magnitude (10-11 - 10-6).

 

Building

DFi (indoor dust dilution factor) unitless
ratio of airborne dust concentration indoors on-site to the concentration outdoors on-site.
It is based on the fact that a building provides shielding against entry of wind-blown dust particles.

GSF (indoor gamma shielding factor) unitless
Ratio of the indoor external gamma radiation level form soil on-site to the outdoor gamma radiation level on-site.
It is based on the fact that a building provides shielding against penetration of gamma radiation.

FDF (fraction of radon diffusing through floor) unitless
This parameter depends on the properties of the building floor. For a bare earth floor it is 1. Typical values are 0.07 for an intact concrete floor (20 cm thick), and 0.2 for a cracked concrete floor (20 cm thick, with an array of 1 cm wide cracks every 1 m) [UNSCEAR 1993].

FAF (ratio of advection to diffusion through floor) unitless
This parameter depends on the underpressure in the building and the permeability of the underlying soil. It is affected by the soil type initialization.
Typical values for an underpressure of 5 Pa are: (derived from [UNSCEAR 1993])
 Permeability [m2]
10-1310-1210-1110-1010-9
Cracked floor1.41.52.715.08.3
Bare earth1.11.21.67.33.3

Permeability of representative soil types [Nazaroff 1988]
Soil typePermeability [m2]
Uniform, coarse sand5 x 10-10
Uniform, medium sand1 x 10-10
Clean, well-graded sand and gravel1 x 10-11
Uniform, fine sand5 x 10-12
Well-graded, silty sand and gravel5 x 10-13
Silty sand1 x 10-13
Uniform silt5 x 10-14
Sandy clay5 x 10-15
Silty clay1 x 10-15
Clay1 x 10-16

BRH (building room height) m
ratio of the volume of the total internal space of the building to the internal area of its floor surface.
For one-story houses without a basement, the values typically lie within the range of 2.2 - 3.0 m.

WAF (ratio of contaminated room surface area to floor surface area) unitless
ratio of the internal room surface area consisting of contaminated building material to the floor surface area.
Typical values are:
contaminated surfaceWAF ratio
floor only1
ceiling only1
walls only *)2.5
all surfaces *)4.5
*) for average 4m x 4m room and 2.5m room height

dw (wall thickness) m

lambdaV (building air exchange rate) per hour
This parameter expresses the rate at which the total air contained within the building is replaced (or renewed) per hour. In the United States, the average ventilation rate during the seasons when houses are kept closed lies within the range of 0.1 - 1.0 per hour.

Fi (indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor)
fraction of potential alpha decay energy of the short-lived radon decay products in indoor air, compared to secular equilibrium.
The equilibrium factor is defined as:
F = (0.106 cPo-218 + 0.514 cPb-214 + 0.380 cBi-214) / cRn-222
where cx stands for the activity concentration of the nuclide x.
The factor depends on the air exchange rate of the building, among others. A typical indoor value is 0.4.

 

Climate

City, State (Climatic Zone)
Pick the city with the most similar climatic conditions (map) . Sorry: US-Sites only :-(

Q/C (inverse of the mean conc. at the center of square source) g/m2-s per kg/m3
The Surface Area and City/Climate Zone are used to look up a Q/C.

Um (mean annual windspeed) m/s
The City/Climate Zone is used to look up a value for Um.

Ut (equivalent threshold value of windspeed at 7 m) m/s
minimum windspeed at a height of 7 meters that is needed to cause dust on-site.
The value of 11.32 m/s corresponds to a threshold friction velocity of 0.625 m/s at ground level. This value is corrected for the presence of nonerodible elements in the surface soil.

Fo (outdoor radon progeny equilibrium factor)
fraction of potential alpha decay energy of the short-lived radon decay products in the on-site outdoor air, compared to secular equilibrium.
The equilibrium factor is defined as:
F = (0.106 cPo-218 + 0.514 cPb-214 + 0.380 cBi-214) / cRn-222
where cx stands for the activity concentration of the nuclide x.
The outdoor equilibrium factor depends on source area and climatic conditions. A typical outdoor value for an infinite source area is 0.6. For small source areas, it can decrease to 0.25, for example.

 

Groundwater

METHOD 1: Partitioning Equation for Migration to Ground Water

DF (dilution factor) unitless
ratio of leachate contaminant concentration in the contaminated soil (Cw) to leachate contaminant concentration in the groundwater aquifer, from which the potable water is taken.
The dilution factor of SSGR defaults to 20 for a 0.5-acre source.
If you have all of the parameters needed to calculate a dilution factor, you may use Method 2.

Kd (soil-water partition coefficient) L/kg
ratio of the mass of solute species adsorbed or precipitated on the solids per unit of dry mass of the soil to the solute concentration in the liquids.
The coefficient represents the partition of the solute in the soil matrix and soil water, assuming that equilibrium conditions exist between the soil and solution phases. The transfer of radionuclides from the liquid to the solid phase or vice versa may be controlled by mechanisms such as adsorption and precipitation, depending on the radionuclides.

The Kd values for uranium, for example, vary over more than 6 decades between 0.4 and 1,000,000, and, for a given pH, the range still covers 4 decades:
Kd values for uranium [L/kg]
(EPA 1999b Table 5.17)
  pH   MinimumMaximum
3< 132
40.45,000
525160,000
61001,000,000
763630,000
80.4250,000
9< 17,900
10< 15
> See also Figure J.4 (EPA 1999b) (note: vertical axis shows decadic logarithm of Kd)

For some elements, default Kd values are provided. These are conservative default values taken from Table C.2a of the SSGR User's Guide. For guidance on when it is appropriate to replace this default value and use a site-specific Kd value, refer to Part 5.2 of the SSGR Technical Background Document.

For the other elements, there are no default Kd values available. These elements are only considered, if site-specific Kd values are entered.
A Kd for these elements must be developed on a site-specific basis to evaluate the potential for fate and transport of this contaminant from soil to groundwater. See part C.2 of the SSGR User's Guide for guidance on developing site-specific Kd values.

For comparison purposes, the Kd values can also be initialized to the less conservative default values used in DOE's RESRAD and NRC's DandD models.

Due to the high variability of the Kd values, meaningful calculation results for the actual health risk from ingestion of the contaminated groundwater from an existing site can only be obtained, if site-specific values are available. Otherwise, only estimates for certain assumptions can be made.

METHOD 2: Mass-Limit Equation for Migration to Ground Water
This method only works if site-specific values are entered for all of these parameters plus for ds in the Soil section.
For information about calculating site-specific values for the parameters included in the Mass-limit equations please refer to sections 2.6 and 2.7 of the SSGR Technical Background Document.

I (Infiltration Rate) m/yr
rate of water infiltration from surface into contaminated soil (precipitation plus irrigation minus evaporation minus runoff)

K (aquifer hydraulic conductivity) m/yr
The hydraulic conductivity of a soil is a measure of the soil's ability to transmit water when submitted to a hydraulic gradient. On the basis of Darcy's law, the hydraulic conductivity is defined as the ratio of Darcy's velocity to the applied hydraulic gradient.
The values of saturated hydraulic conductivity in soils vary within a wide range of several orders of magnitude, depending on the soil material:
Clean sand102 - 105
Silty sand101 - 104
Silt, loess10-2 - 102
Glacial till10-5 - 101
Unweathered marine clay10-5 - 10-2

i (hydraulic gradient) m/m
The hydraulic gradient is the change in hydraulic head per unit of distance of the groundwater flow in a given direction.
In an unconfined (water table) aquifer, the horizontal hydraulic gradient of groundwater flow is approximately the slope of the water table. In general, the hydraulic gradient of groundwater flow in a highly permeable geologic material, such as sand or gravel, is far less than that in a geologic material with a low permeability, such as silt and clay.

L (source length parallel to ground water flow) m
maximum horizontal distance measured in the contaminated zone, from its upgradient edge to the downgradient edge, along the direction of the groundwater flow in the underlying aquifer.

da (aquifer thickness) m
thickness of the potable water aquifer beneath the contaminated soil zone

 


Modeling

General

This calculator takes no account of radioactive decay: this simplification causes some error for Pb-210 and Ac-227 in case of disequilibrium with their respective parent nuclides (this also concerns Migration to Groundwater Method 1 in case of different Kd values for these nuclides and their respective parents).
EPA's SSGR also does not account for decay, while a decay term has been added to the equations used in EPA's online SSGR calculator. The decay term chosen, however, is not adequate for use in decay chains, as found with uranium.

Other than in the SSGR, where the fractions of time the individual spends on-site are inconsistently applied to the various pathways, this calculator applies the General Exposure Parameters to all pathways in the same way.

Risk coefficients used

The calculator determines the Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk from exposure to radionuclides in soil via the pathways described. The risk coefficients per unit exposure used are EPA's Radionuclide Cancer Morbidity Slope Factors (see Table D.1 of the SSGR User's Guide). These slope factors are taken from the Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) (Note: figures of this link outdated). The slope factors are derived primarily from: Health Risks from Low-Level Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13, Part I - , U.S. EPA, 1999 (also known as FGR13). (download FGR13 as PDF 3MB )

For inhalation of radon-222-progeny the risk coefficient of 0.0005 per WLM is used, according to [Marsh 2010].

For conversion from risk to effective dose, ICRP's cancer morbidity coefficient for the public of 0.06 per Sv is used (ICRP 60). This value, rather than the fatal cancer coefficient of 0.05 per Sv is chosen, since EPA's slope factors are for cancer morbidity rather than fatal cancer.

Pathway-specific Models

Ingestion of Soil

For the age-adjusted case, a time-weighted ingestion rate is determined.

Inhalation of Fugitive Dust

The model first determines a particulate emission factor based on wind speed and climatic site conditions, and then determines exposure. For indoor exposure, an attenuation factor is applied.

The model internally uses F(x), a function dependent on Ut/Um) not explicitly described in the SSGR:
The F(x) function is derived using Cowherd et al. (1985):
x = 0.886 * Ut / Um
For x = 0 ... 2, see F(x) plot in Figure 4-3 on p. 36
For x > 2, F(x) may be approximated by:   F(x) = 0.18 ( 8 x3 + 12 x ) exp(-x2)

External Exposure

For source areas smaller than 2 acres (0.8 ha), a correction factor is applied to account for the finite geometry. For external exposure from soil inside the building, an attenuation factor is used. The dose factors used are for infinite source depth.
For the indoor external radiation exposure from building materials, a dose coefficient of 0.461 nGy/h per Bq/kg is used independent of the building geometry, in connection with a coefficient of 0.7 Sv/Gy [UNSCEAR 1993].

Ingestion of Produce

The only pathway taken into consideration for the ingestion of produce grown on the contaminated soil is the root uptake of radionuclides by the plants. The soil-to-plant transfer factors are taken from Table C.3 in Appendix C of the SSG User's Guide. Other possible pathways, such as irrigation, dust deposition on leaves, etc. are not considered. It is assumed that the roots only extend through contaminated soil.

Ingestion of Groundwater

Simplifying Assumptions for the Migration to Ground Water Pathway: Method 1 (Partitioning Equation) assumes that the source is infinite (i.e., steady-state concentrations will be maintained in ground water over the exposure period of interest).
This method uses a simple linear equilibrium soil/water partition equation to estimate contaminant release (nuclide-specific) in soil leachate. Contaminant concentration in the receiving aquifer is obtained using a dilution factor.

Method 2 (Mass-Limit Equation) assumes that the source is finite, and that the entire volume of contamination leaches (nuclide-inspecific) over the exposure duration.
It uses a simple water-balance equation to calculate a dilution factor to account for reduction of soil leachate concentration from mixing in an aquifer.

 

Inhalation of Radon

This pathway is not included in the SSGR and was adapted from [UNSCEAR 1993].
First, the amount of radon-222 passing through the soil surface is calculated. For outdoor concentrations in air, the atmospheric conditions and the source area are considered, assuming that no radon is released from soil outside of the contaminated area. For indoor air concentrations, passage from the soil through a cracked floor, plus release from the building materials through the wall surface is considered, and the building air exchange rate is taken into account. Other factors, such as infiltration of outdoor air are neglected.
If no source depth ds is entered, an infinite source depth is assumed.
There is no account for radon-220 (also known as thoron - a member of the Thorium-232 decay series) in this calculator.

 


Bibliography and Resources

U.S. EPA: Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides

Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: User's Guide , EPA/540-R-00-007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October 2000

Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: Technical Background Document , EPA/540-R-00-006, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October 2000

Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: Online Calculator
Caution: This calculator produces erroneous output, if the activity unit Bq, rather than pCi is selected.

 

[Cowherd 1985] Cowherd, C. et al.: Rapid Assessment of Exposure to Particulate Emissions from Surface Contamination. Prepared for U.S. EPA, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC., EPA/600/8-85/002, 1985
> View/Download

[EPA 1999a] Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values, Volume 1: The Kd Model of Measurement, and Application of Chemical Reaction Codes, U.S. EPA, EPA-402-R-99-004A, Washington, D.C., 1999, 220 p.
> View/Download · Download PDF

[EPA 1999b] Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values, Volume 2: Review of Geochemistry and Available Kd Values for Cadmium, Cesium, Chromium, Lead, Plutonium, Radon, Strontium, Thorium, Tritium (3H), and Uranium, U.S. EPA, EPA-402-R-99-004B, Washington, D.C., 1999, 326 p.
> View/Download · Download PDF

[Marsh 2010] J.W. Marsh et al: Dose conversion factors for radon, in: Health Physics Vol. 99, No. 4 (Oct. 2010), p. 511-516

[Nazaroff 1988] W. Nazaroff, A. Nero (Eds.): Radon and its decay products in indoor air, New York 1988

[Rogers 1991] Rogers, V.C., K.K. Nielson: Correlations for Predicting Air Permeabilities and Rn-222 Diffusion Coefficients of Soils, in: Health Physics Vol. 61, No. 2 (August 1991), p.225230.

[UNSCEAR 1993] Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 1993 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes, United Nations, New York, 1993, 922 p.

[Yu 1993] C. Yu, J.J. Cheng, et al.: Data Collection Handbook To Support Modeling Impacts Of Radioactive Material In Soil , Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, ANL/EAIS-8, April 1993, 165 p.

 

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