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(last updated 15 Nov 2022)
Contents:
The calculator only determines exposure to radiation; the chemical toxicity of uranium is not covered (see Uranium Biokinetics Calculator and Uranium Toxicity).
The calculator only determines doses to exposed individuals. For collective dose calculations, see the Nuclear Fuel Population Health Risk Calculator.
The calculator only determines doses and dose rates for situations, where the pathway and the rate of exposure to a contaminant is known. Otherwise, some more sophisticated software has to be used (see Uranium in Soil and Building Material Individual Dose Calculator, Uranium Mine and Mill Resident Individual Dose Calculator and Dose modeling software).
The calculator only determines doses for adults. For age-specific dose calculations, see the Uranium Radiation Age-specific Dose Calculator.
The calculator only determines effective doses. For organ-specific dose calculations, see the Uranium Radiation Organ Dose Calculator.
For more sophisticated calculations of doses from external radiation, see the External Radiation Dose Calculator.
The parameters used for the calculation can be set in the Material Input and Exposure Parameters tables. These parameters show reasonable initial values which can be modified as needed. There are no other hidden parameters used in the calculation. Any assumptions made for the calculations are described on this page.
Cautionary Notice:
The user should be aware that several of the parameters used in the biokinetic model for the dose factors are subject to variations and uncertainties, while the calculator produces only one result, without indicating these elements of uncertainty.
> See also: Study assesses uncertainty of ICRP dose factors for ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides
For external exposure on soil, either the dose coefficients of [FGR12], or [FGR15], for soil contaminated to infinite depth can be used. These are based on ICRP 60/61 , or ICRP 103, respectively. It is assumed that the person is standing on a plane of soil contaminated to infinite depth. The dose is modified for source area by the area correction factors of [EPA2000].
Note: The External Radiation Dose Calculator offers more options for this situation.
For external exposure on plane, either the dose coefficients of [FGR12], or [FGR15], for exposure to contaminated ground surface are used. These are based on ICRP 60/61 , or ICRP 103, respectively. It is assumed that the person is standing on an infinite plane contaminated at the given specific surface activity.
For external exposure to a point source, only gamma radiation is considered. The calculator does not account for self-shielding within the source, and it simplistically assumes an energy-independent mass absorbtion coefficient in air (µ_{en}/rho) of 0.0028 m^{2}/kg. The conversion factor from absorbed energy in air to effective dose is used as entered in the "Sv per Gy" field (UNSCEAR_2000 recommends 0.7 Sv/Gy for adults, 0.8 for children, and 0.9 for infants).
Note: It is advisable to use the External Radiation Dose Calculator instead.
[FGR12] U.S. EPA: Federal Guidance Report No. 12: External Exposures to Radionuclides in Air; Water; and Soil, EPA 402-R-93-081, September 1993
> download full text (1081k - PDF format)
> online lookup of FGR 12 dose factors for external exposure
> download database DFEXT of FGR 12 dose factors, contained in the DFACT package
[The FGR 12 dose factors are based on ICRP26. The DFEXT software also allows computing of the effective dose according to ICRP60: these values have been used here.]
[FGR15] U.S. EPA: Federal Guidance Report No. 15: External Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water and Soil, External Dose Rate Coefficients for General Application, EPA 402-R-19-002, Aug. 2019
[Neghabian1991] Verwendung von wiederaufgearbeitetem Uran und von abgereichertem Uran, von A.R. Neghabian, H.J. Becker, A. Baran, H.-W. Binzel, Der Bundesminister für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (Hg.), Schriftenreihe Reaktorsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, BMU-1992-332, November 1991, 186 S.
[UNSCEAR_2000] Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes, Vol. I. United Nations, New York, 2000.
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