Bibliography: Military Use of Depleted Uranium (DU)
(last updated 30 Apr 2008)
> See also:
- Eric Hoskins: Making the Desert Glow - U.S. uranium
shells used in the gulf war may be killing Iraqi
children. The New
York Times , OP-ED, January 21, 1993, page A19
- William Arkin: The desert glows - with propaganda .
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1993
- Naima Lefkir-Laffitte, Roland Laffitte: Armes radioactives contre l'«
ennemi irakien » . Le Monde
diplomatique, avril 1995, page 22
- Gary Cohen: Radioactive Warfare - Radioactive Ammo Lays Them to
Waste .Multinational Monitor, Jan/Feb 1996, Vol.17,
- Bill Mesler: The
Pentagon's Radioactive Bullet - An investigative
report . The Nation, October 21, 1996
- Bill Mesler: Pentagon Poison: The Great Radioactive Ammo Cover-Up
. The Nation, May 26, 1997
- Bill Mesler: The
Gulf War's New Casualties - Tales of sickness from the
Pentagon's own weaponry, made of depleted uranium .
The Nation, July 14, 1997
- Depleted Uranium - Technical Brief , EPA-402-R-06-011, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 2006 (509k PDF )
- Influence of Nephrotoxicity on Urinary Excretion of Uranium , by A Hodgson, P G D Pellow and G N Stradling, HPA-RPD-025, June 2007
- Uncertainty Analysis of the ICRP Systemic Model for Uranium as applied to Interpretation of Bioassay Data for Depleted Uranium , by J D Harrison, T P Fell, P G D Pellow, A W Phipps and M Puncher, HPA-RPD-024, June 2007
- Uncertainty Analysis of the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model applied to Interpretation of Bioassay Data for Depleted Uranium , by M R Bailey and M Puncher, HPA-RPD-023, June 2007
- Depleted Uranium in Urine of Soldiers - WISE Uranium Project FAQ (370k PDF )
- The Emergence and Decline of the Debate Over Depleted Uranium Munitions 1991-2004, by Dan Fahey, 20 June 2004 (132k PDF - posted with permission)
- Depleted Uranium: Scientific Basis for Assessing Risk , The Nuclear Policy Research Institute (NPRI), July 2003 (549k PDF )
- Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , Special Issue on Depleted Uranium: Volume 64, Issues 2-3, Pages 87-259 (2003)
- SCIENCE OR SCIENCE FICTION? Facts, Myths and Propaganda In the Debate Over Depleted Uranium Weapons, by Dan Fahey, (253k PDF , March 12, 2003, posted with permission)
- Fact Sheet: Hazards from depleted uranium produced from reprocessed uranium (290k PDF , revised March 26, 2003)
- Infoblatt: Gefahren von abgereichertem Uran aus Wiederaufarbeitungsuran (290k PDF - in German , revised March 26, 2003)
- Compostion of the U.S. DOE Depleted Uranium Inventory (70k PDF )
- Uranium Toxicity
- The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions, Part I/II , The Royal Society, London, May 2001 / March 2002
- Depleted Uranium: Sources, Exposure and Health Effects , World Health Organization, Geneva, April 2001
- Informationen über Uran-Munition (Uran-Geschosse, DU-Munition) (in German ), Heinz Helmers, Hans-J. Pade, Arbeitsgruppe Physikalische Umweltanalytik, Univ. Oldenburg
- Depleted Uranium, Background Information on a Current Topic /
Depleted Uranium (abgereichertes Uran) (in German )
by W. Arnold, AC-Laboratorium Spiez , Switzerland, January 2000
- Alpha-Strahlung: Strahlenbiologie und Risikobeurteilung by Prof. Horst Kuni (350k PDF , in German )
- Review of Radioactivity, Military Use, and Health Effects of Depleted Uranium , by Vladimir S. Zajic, July 1999
- Health and Environmental Consequences of Depleted Uranium Use in the U.S.Army: Technical Report. Army Environmental Policy Institute , Atlanta, Georgia 1995, 200+ p.
- The Military Toxics Project's Depleted Uranium Citizens'
Network: Radioactive Battlefields of
the 1990's, The United States Army's Use of
Depleted Uranium and its Consequences for Human Health and the
Environment, Jan.16, 1996, 8 p.
- Hantel, L. W. ; Hopson, J. W. ; Sandstrom, D. J.: Evaluation of depleted-uranium alloys for use in armor-piercing projectiles, Los Alamos National Laboratory, June 1973 (declassified 1995), LA-5238, AFATL-TR-73-61, 78 p.
- Elder,J C; Tinkle,M C: Oxidation of depleted uranium penetrators and aerosol dispersal at high temperatures, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 1980, LA-8610-MS, 53 p.
- Mishima,J; Parkhurst,M A; Scherpelz,R I : Potential
Behavior of Depleted Uranium Penetrators under Shipping and Bulk
Storage Accident Conditions. U.S. DOE (Ed.), PNL-5415,
Washington, D.C. 1985, 138 p.
- Guidelines for Safe Response to Handling, Storage,
and Transportation Accidents Involving Army Tank Munitions or
Armor Which Contain Depleted Uranium. (ARMY PUBS.), 28
Sep 1990, 56p, NTIS Order number: TB 9-1300-278ING.
- Layton,David W; Armstrong,Anthony Q: Methodological
Considerations for Determining Cleanup Limits for Uranium in
Treated and Untreated Soils. In: Journal of Soil
Contamination, Vol.3 (1994) No.4, p.319-348
- Erikson,R L; Hostetler,C J; Divine,J R; Price,K R:
Review of the environmental behavior of uranium derived
from depleted uranium alloy penetrators. U.S. DOE
(Ed.), PNL-7213, 1990, 26 p.
- Depleted Uranium – A study of its Uses in the UK and Disposal Issues, R&D Technical Report P3-088/TR, UK Environment Agency , Bristol, ISBN: 1 85705 5241, November 2001
- Report on Environmental Effects at Yuma Proving
Ground from Continued Testing of Projectiles Containing
Beryllium and Depleted Uranium. U.S. DOE (Ed.), UCID-
21277, Washington, D.C. 1988
- Shinn,J H : Environmental Analysis of Metal Particle
Dispersion from an Explosive Test at Tonopah Test
Range. U.S. DOE (Ed.), UCID-21355, Washington, D.C.
1988, 21 p.
- Camins,I; Shinn,J H: Analysis of Beryllium and
Depleted Uranium: An Overview of Detection Methods in Aerosols
and Soils, U.S. DOE (Ed.), UCID-21400, Washington,
D.C., 1988, 40 p., Download (4.3 MB) (PDF format)
- Wichner,R P; Khan,A A; Hoegler,J M : Separation of
Depleted Uranium Fragments from Gun Test Catchments: Phase
1, Catchment System Evaluation and Separations Methods.
U.S. DOE (Ed.), ORNL/TM-11141, Washington, D.C. 1989, 128 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Essington,E H; Gladney,E S; Newman,B D;
Reynolds,C L: Long-term fate of depleted uranium at
Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds. Final report, Phase
1: Geochemical transport and modeling. Progress rept. U.S. DOE
(Ed.), LA-11790-MS, Washington, D.C. 1990, 37 p.
- Ikenberry,T A: Evaluation of the depleted uranium
hazard from SRAM II missile testing.; California
Coastal Commission meeting (CCC), Santa Barbara, CA (USA), 8-9
Apr 1991. U.S. DOE (Ed.), PNL-SA-19325; CONF-91042571,
Washington, D.C. 1991, 28 p.
- Bernhardt,D E: Depleted Uranium Cleanup Criteria and
Associated Risk. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual
Meeting of the Health Physics Society, Columbus, OH, June 21-25,
1992, CONF-920617, 1992, 13 p.
- Environmental assessment for the depleted uranium
testing program at the Nevada Test Site by the United States
Army Ballistics Research Laboratory. U.S. DOE Nevada
Field Office (Ed.), DOE/EA-0398, Las Vegas, NV 1992, 60 p.
- Wenstrand,T K; Greene,J: Decontamination of Soils
Containing Depleted Uranium Using a Combination of Gravity
Separation and Chemical-Extraction Techniques. In:
Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society
205 (1993) MAR, p.134-IEC
- Lloyd,D B; Wichner,R P; Jermyn,H W: Separation of
Depleted Uranium Fragments from Gun Test Catchment. Volume
1. Summary and Recommendations. Final rept. Sep 88-Dec
92.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. (Ed.), ORNL/TM-11141-VOL.1,
1993, 63 p.
- Wichner,R P; Khan,A A; Hoegler,J M: Separation of
Depleted Uranium Fragments from Gun Test Catchment. Volume
2. Catchment System and Separations Methods. Final
rept. Sep 88-Dec 92.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. (Ed.),
ORNL/TM-11141-VOL.2, 1993, 139 p.
- Wichner,R P; Bradshaw,W M: Separation of Depleted
Uranium Fragments from Gun Test Catchment. Volume 3.
Economic Comparison of Depleted Uranium Disposal Options for
Elgin AFB Gun Test Facility. Final rept. Sep 88-Dec 92.; Oak
Ridge National Lab., TN. (Ed.), ORNL/TM-11141-VOL.3, 1993, 80 p.
- Khan,A A: Separation of Depleted Uranium Fragments
from Gun Test Catchment. Volume 4. Bench-Scale Tests of
Separating Depleted Uranium from Sand. Final rept. Sep 88-Dec
92.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN. (Ed.), ORNL/TM-11141-VOL.4,
1993, 50 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Myers,O B; Kennedy,P L; Clements,W H:
Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving
Ground; American Defense Preparedness Associates
symposium on the environment, Albuquerque, NM (United States),
23-25 Mar 1993. . U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/UR/93-484; CONF-93031121,
Washington, D.C. 1993, 10 p.
- Clements,W H; Kennedy,P L; Myers,O B: Ecological
risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at
Aberdeen Proving Ground. Annual report, 1991. Progress
rept. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/SUB-93-76, Washington, D.C. 1993, 32
- Becker, N M: Influence of hydraulic and geomorphologic components of a semi-arid watershed on depleted uranium transport, U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA-UR-93-2165, Washington, D.C. 1991, 239 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Hansen,W R: Environmental radiation
monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma
Proving Ground. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/UR/94-1838,
Washington, D.C. 1994, 87 p.
- Ward,T J; Stevens,K A: Modeling erosion and transport of depleted uranium, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona . U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/SUB/94-167; WRRI286, Washington, D.C. 1994, 86 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Hansen,W R: Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/UR/94-1809, Washington, D.C. 1994, 77 p.
- Mason,C F V; Allander,K S; Bounds,J A; Garner,S E; Walter,K
J: Use of the long-range alpha detector (LRAD) for alpha
emission surveys at active and inactive firing sites;
Waste management '94, Tucson, AZ (United States), 27 Feb - 3 Mar
1994. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/UR/94-400; CONF-94022547, Washington,
D.C. 1994, 10 p.
- Van Etten,D M; Purtymun,W D: Depleted uranium
investigation at missile impact sites in White Sands Missile
Range. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/12675/MS, Washington, D.C.
1994, 49 p.
- Vandel,D S; Medina,S M; Weidner,J R: Remediation
application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils
at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground. U.S. DOE (Ed.),
EGG-CEE-10883, Washington, D.C. 1994, 221 p.
- U.S. NRC: Decommissioning of the Depleted Uranium
Impact Area of the Jefferson Proving Ground, Madison,
IN. Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact
Statement and To Conduct a Scoping Process. In: Federal
Register 60 (1995) (April 10), p.18155-18159
- Kennedy,P L; Clements,W H; Myers,O B; Bestgen,H T; Jenkins,D
G: Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at
Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds,
Arizona. Final report. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/SUB/94-173,
Washington, D.C. 1995, 211 p.
- Becker,N M; Vanta,E B: Hydrologic transport of
depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing
at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air
Force Base, Florida. Major Range and Test Facility Base
environmental workshop (5th), Alexandria, VA (United States),
23-25 May 1995. U.S. DOE (Ed.), LA/UR/95-1213, Washington, D.C.
1995, 18 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Beckman,R J; Myers,O B; et al.: Long-
term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving
Grounds, Phase II: Human health and ecological risk assessments.
U.S. DOE, LA-13156-MS, Washington D.C., Sep 1996, 218 p.
- Ebinger,M H; Hansen,W R: Depleted uranium risk
assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from
environmental monitoring and site characterization.
Final report. Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States), LA-
UR-96-3852, Oct 1996, 79p.
- Ebinger,M H: Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground: updated risk estimates for human health and ecosystem receptors. Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-UR-98-5053, Nov 1998, 22 p.
- Miller,Mark; Galloway,Robert B.; VanDerpoel,Glenn et al.: Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, NM, and Livermore, SAND99-2843J, 1999, 5 p.
- Unresolved Issues Regarding Depleted Uranium And the Health of U.S. Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, by Dan Fahey, 24 March 2004 (241k PDF - posted with permission)
- Dan Fahey: Don't Look, Don't Find. Gulf War Veterans, the U.S. Government and Depleted Uranium 1990 - 2000 , The Military Toxics Project, March 30, 2000
- Steve Fetter and Frank von Hippel, "The Hazard Posed by Depleted-uranium Munitions," Science and Global Security, Vol. 8, No. 2 (1999), pp. 125-161
> Download full text:
(161k PDF) ·
(161k PDF - alternate URL) ·
(209k Word 97)
- Steve Fetter and Frank von Hippel, "When the Dust Settles," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 55, No. 6 (November/December 1999) pp. 42-45
> Download full text:
(26k PDF) ·
(46k Word 97)
- DOD Analysis II, by Dan Fahey, June 29, 1999, 22 p. [An Analysis of the RAND report on Depleted Uranium, see below]
> Download full text (419k PDF )
- Fahey, Dan: Case Narrative - Depleted Uranium (DU) Exposures, Swords to Plowshares, Inc., National Gulf War Resource Center, Inc., Military Toxics Project, Inc., 3rd edition, September 20, 1998
> Download full text: GWVR (RTF format)
· MTP (PDF format)
- Fahey, Dan: The Stone Unturned - A Report on
Exposures of Persian Gulf War Veterans and Others to Depleted
Uranium Contamination, March, 1997
> View full text (80k, RAMA) ·
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- Bukowski,Grace; Lopez,Damacio A: Uranium
Battlefields Home & Abroad. Depleted Uranium Use by
the U.S. Department of Defense. Citizen Alert & Rural Alliance for Military
Accountability (Ed.), Reno / Carson City, Nevada 1993, 166
> Download PDF
- Cortenraad, René : Depleted Uranium -
"Agent Orange" of the 1990s?, The use of
depleted uranium in armor and armor-piercing projectiles. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven ,
Faculteit Technische Natuurkunde 1995, 48 p.
- Dietz, Leonard A. : Contamination of Persian Gulf War Veterans and
Others by Depleted Uranium, Niskayuna 1996
- Dan Fahey: Collateral Damage: How U.S. Troops Were
Exposed to Depleted Uranium During the Persian Gulf
War, Sept.20, 1996 (second edition), 20 p.
(can be obtained from Military Toxics
- Warren,David R; Solis,William M; Schladt,Beverly C;
Maurer,David C; Herman,Robert W; Musallam,Yasmina T:
Operation Desert Storm: Army Not Adequately Prepared to
Deal With Depleted Uranium Contamination. U.S. General Accounting Office
(Ed.), GAO/NSIAD-93-90, Washington, D.C. 1993, 42 p.
> Download full report (PDF)
- Daxon,E G; Musk,J H: Assessment of the Risks from
Embedded Fragments of Depleted Uranium. Armed Forces Radiobiology
Research Inst. (Ed.), AFRRI/TR-93-1, Bethesda, MD 1993, 20
- Daxon,E G: Protocol for Monitoring Gulf War Veterans
with Embedded Fragments of Depleted Uranium. Technical
rept. Armed Forces
Radiobiology Research Inst. (Ed.), AFRRI/TR-93-2, Bethesda,
MD 1993, 24 p.
- Ember,Lois: Joint Effort to Test Ailing Persian Gulf
War Veterans to Begin Soon. In: Chemical &
Engineering News 72 (1994) 21 (May), p.31-32
- Bou-Rabee, Firyal: Estimating the Concentration of
Uranium in Some Environmental Samples in Kuwait After the 1991
Gulf War. In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Vol.46 (1995) No.4, p.217-220
- Livengood,D R: Health effects of embedded depleted uranium fragments. Special Publication. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst. (Ed.), AFRRI/SP-98-3, Bethesda, MD, June 1998, 56 p.
- Environmental Exposure Report: Depleted Uranium in the Gulf , U.S. Department of Defense, July 1998
- N. Harley, E. Foulkes, L. Hilborne et al.: A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Vol.7, Depleted Uranium , MR-1018/7-OSD, RAND, 1999 (alternate source )
- Gulf War Illnesses: Understanding of Health Effects From Depleted Uranium Evolving but Safety Training Needed, GAO/NSIAD-00-70, United States General Accounting Office, Report to Congressional Requesters, March 2000, 41 p.
> Download full report (363k PDF )
- Gulf War and Health: Volume 1. Depleted Uranium, Sarin, Pyridostigmine Bromide, and Vaccines , Committee on Health Effects Associated with Exposures During the Gulf War, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, 416 pp., ISBN 0-309-07178-X, National Academy Press, Sep 2000
> view online
- Environmental Exposure Report - Depleted Uranium in the Gulf (II) , Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, December 13, 2000
- Depleted Uranium - Human Exposure Assessment and Health Risk Characterization In Support of the Environmental Exposure Report "Depleted Uranium in the Gulf" of the Office of the Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness and Military Deployments (OSAGWI), OSAGWI LEVELS I, II AND III SCENARIOS, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM), 15 September 2000
- Untersuchungen zur Gesundheitsgefährdung durch Munition mit abgereichertem Uran (DU), U.Oeh, P.Roth, U.Gerstmann, W.Schimmack, W.Szymczak, V.Höllriegl, W.Li, P.Schramel, H.G. Paretzke, GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit , Institut für Strahlenschutz, GSF-Bericht 03/05, Neuherberg, Juli 2005, 137 S.
> View details
- Depleted Uranium Environmental and Medical Surveillance in the Balkans , Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military Deployments, U.S. Department of Defense, 2001
- Depleted Uranium: Environmental and Health Effects in the Gulf War, Bosnia and Kosovo, European Parliament, Directorate-General for Research, Working Paper, Scientific and Technological Options Assessment Series, STOA 100 EN, May 2001, 53 p.
> Download full text (497k PDF )
- UNEP Final Report: Depleted Uranium in Kosovo - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment, 2001 (PDF )
- Report of the Swiss Members of UNEP-Team, 20 March 2001 (95k PDF ) · German Version
- UNEP Final Report: Depleted Uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, UNEP 2002 (PDF )
- Opinion of the Group of Experts Established According to Article 31 of the Euratom Treaty - Depleted Uranium, 6th March, 2001 (140k PDF )
- Report of the Portuguese Scientific Mission to Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina for assessment of radioactive contamination and of the radiological risk due to the use of depleted uranium ammunitions (April 17, 2001)
- Report of the World Health Organization Depleted Uranium Mission to Kosovo, 22 to 31 January 2001 (12 March 2001, 123k PDF )
- A study of uranium excreted in urine
An assessment of protective measures taken by the German Army KFOR Contingent
Research report prepared by P. Roth, E. Werner, H.G. Paretzke for the Federal Ministry of Defense
GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, January 2001, GSF Report 3/01, 36 p.
> download full text (English) (300k PDF )
- P. Roth, E. Werner, H. G. Paretzke: Untersuchungen zur Uranausscheidung im Urin
Überprüfung von Schutzmaßnahmen beim Deutschen Heereskontingent KFOR
Forschungsbericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums der Verteidigung
GSF - Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut für
Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Januar 2001, GSF-Bericht 3/01, 31 S.
> download full text (486k PDF in German )
- Theodore E. Liolios: Assessing The Risk from the Depleted Uranium Weapons Used in Operation Allied Force, Science & Global Security, Vol. 8 No. 2 (1999), pp.163–181
> download full text (686k PDF )
- UNEP/UNCHS Balkans Task Force (BTF): The potential effects on human health and the environment arising from possible use of depleted uranium during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. A preliminary assessment. 76 p., Geneva, October 1999
> Download full text (589k, PDF format) · alternate source